Sperm donation is advised to couples unable to achieve a pregnancy due to the incapacity of the male partner to produce spermatozoa. Sperm donation is also increasingly being used to assist single women and single or coupled lesbians to have children.
Sperm donor applicants are subjected to a rigorous screening process before they are cleared to donate sperm. This, apart from the clinical assessment, consists of questionnaires, blood screening, specimen screening, genetic analysis and a physical evaluation. The questionnaire process involves comprehensive interviews mainly related to sexual behaviour, family background and reasons for participating in the Genesis sperm donation program.
Laboratory screening includes a collection of different analyses such as HIV 1 and 2 antibodies, Hepatitis B and C, all sexually transmitted diseases, blood group and Rh factor and a chromosomal profile. The semen is analyzed for sperm cell count, forward sperm cell motility, and normal sperm morphology. The age of semen donors ranges between 20 and 45. Once a candidate has been accepted for donation, his specimen will be cryo-preserved and retained in the deep freeze (-196 ºC) for a period of at least 6 months by which time a repeat HIV screening is performed. Specimens donated by a candidate can only be used once the second HIV test has been found negative.
The Genesis sperm cryo-bank has more than 75 sperm donors in its pool. The donor candidates are mainly of Eastern European decent but a large number is of Mediterranean origin as well. Genesis clinic receives requests from several clinics worldwide regarding the acquisition of frozen donor semen specimens. Genesis clinic has adopted a very effective transportation system to assist in the provision of such requests. Furthermore, Genesis has always a limited number of frozen semen specimens which have been donated or are being donated by highly intellectual and accredited individuals. Such candidates include academic scholars and successful entrepreneurs whom achievements have been documented in literature.
Similarly to egg donation, sperm donation is strictly anonymous and no information can be disclosed to potential recipients regarding the identity of the donor candidates without obtaining a written consent in advance.